Urological Conditions - Male Urology
Overview of Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in men of all ages. It is rare in men younger than 40.

Levels of a substance called prostate specific antigen (PSA) is often high in men with prostate cancer. However, PSA can also be high with other prostate conditions. Since the PSA test became common, most prostate cancers are found before they cause symptoms.

Symptoms of prostate cancer may include:

- Problems passing urine, such as pain, difficulty starting or stopping the stream, or dribbling - Low back pain - Pain with ejaculation

Prostate cancer treatment often depends on the stage of the cancer. How fast the cancer grows and how different it is from surrounding tissue helps determine the stage.

Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy or control of hormones that affect the cancer.

Development of Cancer Cells
Cancer begins in cells, the building blocks that make up tissues. Tissues make up the organs of the body.

Normal cells grow and divide to form new cells as the body needs them. When normal cells grow old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.

Sometimes, this process goes wrong. New cells form when the body doesn't need them, and old or damaged cells don't die as they should. The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor.

Prostate growths can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer).

Benign growths are not as harmful as malignant growths:

Benign growths (such as BPH):

- are rarely a threat to life
- can be removed and probably won't grow back
- don't invade the tissues around them
- don't spread to other parts of the body

Malignant tumors:

- may be a threat to life
- often can be removed, but sometimes grow back
- can invade and damage nearby tissues and organs
- can spread to other parts of the body

Cancer cells can spread by breaking away from the prostate tumor. They enter blood vessels or lymph vessels, which branch into all the tissues of the body. The cancer cells can attach to other tissues and grow to form new tumors that may damage those tissues. The spread of cancer is called metastasis. See the Staging section for information about prostate cancer that has spread.
Additional Reference Documents (PDFs):

(PDF) What You Need To Know About (tm) Prostate Cancer  National Cancer Institute - U.S. Department of Health and Human Services


Supportive Information from:

National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health www.cancer.gov

Websites for Additional Information:

AUAFoundation - The Official Foundation of the American Urological Association

NKDEP - National Kidney Disease Education Program

NKUDIC-National Kidney and Urologic Diseases
Information Clearinghouse

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases
Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC)Kidney and Urologic Diseases A-Z list of Topics and Titles

Enid Urology Associates, Inc. 615 E. Oklahoma, Suite 202 ~ Enid, Oklahoma 73703
Phone: 580.233.3230  Fax: 580.233.0698

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